Fractal Model X™ is an Excel-Based Technoeceonomic Energy Storage Modeling Package for Project Feasibility Design, Analysis and Due Diligence

Fractal Model X™ is available through a license with quarterly updates.

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Version 20.9 Newest Features and Functionality

  • Monthly Cashflows: Choose between annual or monthly (schedule outflows), add reserve funds (inverters and batteries), and add debt service
  • Scenario Builder: Compare 4+ bids for CAPEX and OPEX
  • Self-optimization of BESS oversizing and augmentations based on IRR
  • Solar and BESS inverter throughput estimates, recommended replacement years and related CAPEX schedules with accounting treatments
  • Milestone payment schedule to optimize monthly project capital outlay and accurately size capital stack
  • MMRA for optimizing operating cashflows related to battery augmentations and inverter replacement CAPEX; MMRA tax treatment functionality between OPEX and retained earnings
  • Bridge loan / construction note facility for both solar and BESS CAPEX with debt sizing allocation relative to selected cost components
  • Easily toggle between unlevered and levered cases
  • Specify costs of augmentations
  • Specify costs of augmentations
  • Heat map of residual capacity available at POI for optimal BESS value stacking


Fractal Energy Storage Consultants is the leading provider of robust finance models for the energy storage industry. Fractal has spent years developing and optimizing powerful models that simulate performance, degradation, costs and revenues to evaluate total cost of ownership and maximize IRR. We supply these tools to utilities, energy companies and investors. Fractal Model X™ features include:

  • Iterative Technical Design and Financial Analysis
  • Optimization of Project Revenues and Costs
  • Standalone Storage, PV+S (AC or DC), W+S, PV + W + S, PV + PV + S
  • Optimize Sizing and Degradation
  • Detailed Time Series Simulations (Hourly, Minute or Second)
  • Detailed Calculations: SOC, RTE, OPEX, CAPEX, ITC, Oversizing, Depreciation
  • Dynamic Scenarios (Run 5 Different CAPEX and OPEX)
  • Non-linear Degradation Curves That Capture Degradation Due to Throughput, DOD and SOC Across Six Lithium-ion Chemistries
  • RTE Losses in Accordance with Equipment Efficiency Curves (Batteries, Inverters, Transformers, Wires)
  • RTE Degradation (Batteries Become Less Efficient Over Time)
  • Optimized Dispatch Tool to Maximize Returns
  • Stack Applications and Create Custom Dispatches
  • Downloadable Cash Flow (annual and monthly)
  • Evaluate Business Models using Historical Prices or Forecasts
  • Sensitivity Analysis That Allows Year by Year Changes of Costs and Revenues
  • Maintenance and Monitoring Cost Estimates
  • Detailed Calculations of Peak Auxiliary Loads (Station Power)
  • CAPEX Pricing Tool (Fractal’s Estimated Costs)
  • Annual Costs of Auxiliary Loads on a Timestamp by Timestamp Basis
  • Solar Parasitic Load Cost Calculation
  • Track and Customize Degradation Separately for Augmentations
  • Optimize Between BOL Oversize and Augmentations with Self-optimized Simulations
  • Specify Cost Curves for Augmentations
  • Configure Topology: MV or HV Interconnect
  • Solve for Solar PV PPA Rate and Storage Capacity Payment
  • Federal and State Taxes and Tax Incentives
  • Arbitrage Tool (the Model Shows the Best Times to Buy and Sell)
  • ITC Compliance, MACRS, Bonus Depreciation
  • Major Maintenance Reserve Account
  • Account for Inverter Replacements
  • Calculate the Amount of Batteries Given the DOD, C-rate and SOC Restrictions
  • Optimize Around a POI Restriction
  • DC:AC Optimization for PV+S
  • Incorporate Third-party Forecasts and Dispatches
  • MA SMART and Clean Peak Incentive Calculators
  • Full Access to Formulas and VBA
  • Access to Pre-built Models for NYISO, ISO-NE, PJM, ERCOT, CAISO, SPP and MISO


  • Immediate delivery of the Fractal Model and templates for multiple business models across U.S. ISO/RTO
  • 25 prepaid support hours that can be utilized for training, customization or analysis
  • Access to quarterly model updates for 2 years
  • All models constructed for future analysis (analysis contracted separately or using support hours)
  • Optional on-site training (travel excluded)


The Fractal Model X offers users the following advantages:

  • Path to Independence: Fractal can set up models for you in the beginning as requested. Then you can begin setting up models and we can check them. Finally, you can take over and have independence when you are ready.
  • Quarterly Updates: We keep the models fresh with the latest battery modules, energy densities and degradation curves. Fractal is on standby to answer questions on technology, markets pricing.
  • Full Transparency: All the formulas are unlocked and available. VBA code is well documented. The models have been used to support project finance, investment diligence and tax equity.
  • Cost Savings on Analysis Work: With a Fractal Model X license, Fractal can set up models for you on an hourly basis rather than charging for a standalone Site Analysis. This creates significant cost savings. Rather than providing costly reports, Fractal can deliver the models and summary tables.